Background obstructed labour is still a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and adverse outcome of newborn in low income countries. Obstructed labour contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality among both mothers and babies in ethiopia nationwide, and also in the westwollega region where this study was conducted. One of your major roles as a skilled birth attendant is to prevent the occurrence of obstructed labour in women in your community. Obstructed labor is a common complication of human childbirth. Complications for the baby include not getting enough oxygen which may result in death. Labour dystocia or obstructed labour is associated with significant maternal. Obstructed labour, causes, complications ask a gynecologist.
Obstructed labor definition of obstructed labor by the. Obstructed labor is one of the biggest causes of maternal death and its prevention is. It leaves women leaking urine, faeces or both, and often leads to chronic medical problems, depression. This study was conducted to identify the risk factors for ol in. Obstructed labour means that, in spite of strong contractions of the uterus, the fetus cannot descend through the pelvis because there is an insurmountable barrier preventing its descent. Objective in lowresource settings, obstructed labour is strongly associated with severe maternal morbidity and intrapartum asphyxia, and consequently maternal and perinatal deaths. Gpsbased sonopelvimetry, laborprotm trig medical inc.
Complications of prolonged obstructed labour for both mother and baby are many and include intrauterine infections, trauma to maternal structures including uterine rupture with long term sequelae such as fistulae formation, postpartum haemorrhage, infection, stillbirth, nerve palsy and. It is highly prevalent in the rural areas of ethiopia, particularly among women who are in labour at home for a long time. Jul 19, 2012 obstructed labour means that, in spite of strong contractions of the uterus, the fetus cannot descend through the pelvis because there is an insurmountable barrier preventing its descent. Incidence, causes and outcome of obstructed labor in jimma. Obstructed labour caused by foetal congenital hydronephrosis. Obstructed labour is a major cause of maternal death and disability. Obstructed labour oxford academic journals oxford university. Prolonged obstructed labor is an uncommon presentation of. Obstructed labor definition of obstructed labor by the free. Obstructed labour is the failure of the fetus to descend through the birth canal, because there is an impossible barrier obstruction preventing its descent despite strong uterine contractions.
Predisposing factors to obstructed labour obstructed labour occurs either because the birth canal is small for the baby, the baby is too big for the birth canal or the position of the. Uterine rupture was the commonest complication of obstructed labor followed by sepsis in this study as uterine rupture is a well known contributor of maternal hemorrhage and sepsis, which are major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. It increases the risk of the mother getting an infection, having uterine rupture, or having post. This study evaluated the impact of a criteriabased audit of the diagnosis and management of obstructed labour in a lowresource setting. Media in category obstructed labour due to malposition and malpresentation of fetus the following 49 files are in this category, out of 49 total. She continued that obstructed labour leads to vvf when prolonged and unrelieved pressure on the womans pelvic wall causes a puncture in the bladder.
But in the nigerian study, sepsis was commonest complication 3. Obstruction usually occurs at the pelvic brim, but occasionally it may occur in the cavity or at the outlet of the pelvis. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and. Women who survive the ordeal of prolonged obstructed labor often end up suffering from. In obstructed labour the membranes may rupture several hours before labour starts. In parts of the world where access to emergency obstetric services is limited, obstructed labor is a major cause of maternal mortality. It is the clinical picture of obstructed labour with impending rupture uterus excessive uterine contraction and retraction.
Normallyprogressing labor will have a plotting on the left of the alert line. Obstructed labour is said to result in prolonged labour, when the active phase of labour is longer than twelve hours. Fetal weight was the only parameter that differed significantly between cd, spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Proposed parturition cascade for labor induction at term. Patwardhan technique obstructed labour, caesareans section. Global burden of maternal death and disability british. A possible cause of obstructed labour is if the mother has a tumor growth or swelling of soft tissue in her pelvic cavity. Obstetric fistula is one of the most serious and tragic childbirth injuries. Check the fetal heart rate every halfhour at minimum when oxytocin is being infused. International journal of medical science and education pissn 2348 4438 eissn2349 3208 published by association for. Obstructed labour comprises one of the five major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in developing countries 3, 4. Prolonged obstructed labor is a critical intrapartum emergency.
Obstructed labour is a totally preventable labour complication. The reported incidence of obstructed labour in this hospital was 3. Physical or mental exertion, especially when difficult or exhausting. The number of maternal deaths as a result of obstructed labour andor rupture of the uterus varies between 4% and 70% of all maternal deaths, amounting to a maternal mortality rate as high as 410100,000 live births 5. To evaluate an innovative sonopelvimetry method for early prediction of obstructed labour. Managing prolonged and obstructed labour geneva foundation for. The obstruction usually occurs at the pelvic brim, but occasionally it may occur in the pelvic cavity or at the outlet of the pelvis. Risk factors for ol and its associated obstetric squeal are usually context specific. Obstructed labor free download as powerpoint presentation. Induction of labour refer to online version, destroy printed copies after use page 3 of 30 flow chart. In obstructed labour the soft tissues of the pregnant womans vagina, bladder, and rectum are compressed between the fetal head and the maternal pelvic bones. Labour is considered obstructed when the presenting part of the fetus cannot progress into the birth canal, despite strong uterine contractions. Labour and delivery care is one of blended learning modules for the ethiopian health extension programme.
All cases of obstructed labor delivered by cesarean section 100%. This article is part of a series of continuing education activities in this journal through which a total of 36 amapra category 1 creditstm can be earned in 2007. Risk factors for obstructed labour in eastern uganda. This intricacy is, however, unusual as a primary presentation of a giant bladder calculus. Dec 01, 2003 we assumed that in 90% of cases of obstructed labour, a caesarean section is carried out, and in the remaining 10% an instrumental delivery. Descriptive statistics for maternal data and labour characteristics are presented by mode of delivery in table 1. An obstetric labor complication is a difficulty or abnormality that arises during the process of labor or delivery the trust for americas health reports that as of 2011, about one third of american births have some complications. Obstructed labour also causes significant maternal morbidity in the short term notably infection and long term. The partograph, each entry on it and its use are explained. However, this is one complication of pregnancy and labour that can be totally prevented by adequate social health measures.
Session four prevention of prolonged and obstructed labour. Saeeda signs and symptoms of obstructed labour for a smooth progression of labour, you need to asses the following important factors. Year 5 gynecology and obstetrics 2nd salmanya medical. Labour is considered obstructed when the presenting part of the fetus cannot progress into the birth canal, despite strong uterine contractions 1 2. More specifically, labor requires regular, effective contractions that lead to dilation and effacement of the cervix. Obstructed labour is an important cause of maternal deaths in communities in which undernutrition in childhood is common resulting in small pelves in women, and in which there is no easy access to.
Management of labour and obstructed labour chapter 4 page 3 a vaginal examination should be carried out in 3 hours, then in 2 more hours and every 2 hours thereafter. Module 5 prevention of prolongued and obstructed labor. This labour and delivery care module was produced by a team of ethiopian health experts, who were trained and supported by experts in blended learning pedagogy from the heat health education and training team for africa at the open. Deviation to the right could signify prolonged labor. Instructions for how cme credits can be earned appear on the last page of the table of contents. It leaves women leaking urine, faeces or both, and often leads to chronic medical problems, depression, social isolation and deepening poverty. Obstetric fistula unfpa united nations population fund. Indication maternal andor fetal benefit contraindications as for vaginal birth communication with woman indication.
Obstructed labour british medical bulletin oxford academic. The major cause of obstructed labor is cephalopelvic disproportion, which may be due to a small pelvis, a large baby, fetal malpresentation, a tight perineum, or abnormalities or tumors of the uterus, ovary, or vagina. A hole between the birth canal and bladder andor rectum, it is caused by prolonged, obstructed labour without access to timely, highquality medical treatment. Prolonged labour download ebook pdf, epub, tuebl, mobi. Delivery the expulsion or extraction of a viable fetus out of the womb. Who midwifery education module 3 managing prolonged and. Normal labour definitions labour series of events that take place in the genital organs in an effort to expel the viable products of conception out of the womb through the vagina into the outer world.
Prolonged labour can sometimes be treated, resulting in a normal delivery but a woman in true obstructed labour should be delivered by caesarean section. Pdf abstract the women of developing countries are at risk of pregnancy related complications including preeclampsia eclampsia. Alright, now in this part of the article, you will be able to access the free pdf download of dc duttas textbook of obstetrics 8th edition pdf free download using our direct links mentioned at the end of this article. She stated that she had been having contractions at 7 to 10 minute intervals since 4 p. Obstructed labour, also known as labour dystocia, is when, even though the uterus is contracting normally, the baby does not exit the pelvis during childbirth due to being physically blocked. The skills specific to preventing and managing prolonged and obstructed labour include. Obstructed labour is a clinical condition where in spite of good uterine contractions, the progr essive descent of the presenting part is arrested due to mechanical obstruction. The most frequent cause of obstructed labour is cephalopelvic disproportion, a mismatch between the fetal head and the mothers pelvic brim 3 4.
The women of developing countries are at risk of pregnancyrelated complications including preeclampsia eclampsia, obstructed labor, sepsis etc. Dc duttas textbook of obstetrics 8th edition pdf free. It is important to educate people in rural areas about the importance of getting skilled care at every delivery. Prolonged labour is a comprehensive, scholarly and balanced account of new labours domestic policies in its first two terms in office. Obstructed labour is a major cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity in developing countries possible causes of obstructed labour include. Request pdf obstructed labour obstructed labour is an important cause of maternal deaths in communities in which undernutrition in childhood is common. We have uploaded a genuine pdf ebook copy of this book to our online file repository so that you can enjoy a blazing. Introduction obstructed labour ol is an important clinical and public health problem because of the associated maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Obstructed labour contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality. She also stated that she had been having a lot of false labor and hoped that this was the real thing.
Apr 03, 2017 a possible cause of obstructed labour is if the mother has a tumor growth or swelling of soft tissue in her pelvic cavity. No epidemiological study has documented the risk factors for ol in eastern uganda. Foetopelvic disproportion was the commonest cause in this centre and foetal congenital anomaly as a cause of obstructed labour was only 1. Definition obstructed labour is the failure of the fetus to descend through the birth canal, because there is an impossible barrier preventing its descent, despite strong uterine contractions. Methods a baseline criteriabased audit was conducted from. It mobilizes ministerial speeches, elite interviews and policy documents, plus.
The spontaneous induction of labor at term in the human is regulated by a series of paracrineautocrine hormones acting in an integrated parturition cascade responsible for promoting uterine contractions. Arabian gulf university kingdom of bahrain year 5 gynecology and obstetrics 2nd week salmanya medical complex dr. Prior to obstruction in primigravidae the rate of cervical dilation in the active 1st. Risk factors for prolonged obstructed labour include short stature, lack of obstetric care, poor nutrition, diabetes and fetal macrosomia, prolonged obstructed labour remains a major reproductive health concern in many developing countries where there is urgent need for improved nutrition, education, health systems and the. She had background lower urinary tract symptoms with suprapubic swelling and hematuria of 2 years duration.446 1074 844 170 822 195 755 230 173 1290 300 770 1232 594 914 1275 508 1104 1437 1396 1508 1056 690 375 1487 443 1380 1276 1065 989 271 472 23 1416